Fe137 + cadre


Continuous training in context, the company at the heart of challenges

The « Documentation française »

Formation Emploi , n° 137 , 2017 , 167 p.

Price 24,50 € 

Only abstracts are in English, texts are in French.


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This project looks at continuing training not only at the level of the individual or firm but also from a more contextual and systemic perspective. 
It encourages exploration of the regulations governing continuing training, particularly at the level of the organisation of the firm and the factors influencing it.


How to finance continuous vocational training in Switzerland 

Isabel Voirol-Rubido


This article is about CVT financing issue. A field survey of the main CVT actors from Switzerland highlights the impossibility to implement a tripartite (worker, employer, public authorities) CVT employee oriented model at the moment in Switzerland mainly because of the economic eneffectiveness fear of the model and the insistent wish of employers to keep CVT in private hands. The wish to remain public involvement subsidiary and the fear of  some inadequacy of the proposed model to meet low qualified employees needs make also the proposal low attractive.

Keywords: continuing vocational training, CVT funding, CVT policy, collective labour agreement, trade union, Switzerland


Varieties of labor-capital coordination. A French-Italian comparison of continuous vocational training taxes systems

Josua Gräbener


This article proposes an interpretation of different  governance capacity over Continuous Vocational Training (CVT) taxes, in France and Italy. Institutional and power games within industrial relations have a direct impact on the political status of training taxes. The latter’ autonomy is threatened by employers’ pressures for return on training investment ; such pressures are significantly higher when the training taxes are collected by bilateral funds competing against each other.

Key-words: continuing vocational training, CVT funding, CVT policy, industrial relations, joint organisation for managing CVE funds, international comparison, France, Italy


Adjustments of firms and continuous training of workers in times of crisis in France

Mathilde Guergoat-Larivière

Coralie Perez

Is continuous training considered as an investment or rather as an adjustment variable in times of crisis in France? Continuous training practices varied across firms in 2010 depending on the adjustments implemented (in terms of variation in the workforce, restructuring, short-time working etc.). Employees in firms with larger reductions in the workforce and conversely those in firms which expanded despite the crisis got relatively lower access to training (hypothesis of cost reduction for the former and of higher cost opportunity of training for the latter). However, a specific feature appears for employees in firms which implemented short-time working: they did not get more frequent access to training but when they did, they were trained for longer hours.

Keywords: continuing vocational training, access to CVT, CVT in companies, economic crisis


How do firms organized in order to enhance the capability for learning of their employees

Josiane Vero

Jean-Claude Sigot


For nearly 15 years, reforms in continuing vocational training implemented at the French policy-making level have increasingly expected the employee to become the main actor of his learning and his professional evolution. A new semantics of work and learning is emerging, combining freedom and responsibility. This contribution explores the conditions of this linkage between freedom and responsibility with regard to continuing vocational training. Drawing inspiration from the capability approach of Amartya Sen, it assesses the scope of corporate continuing vocational training policies to identify those that promote the capability for training of employees. It provides a typology of these corporate training policies and identifies the characteristics of the most capability-friendly organizations from the French linked employer-employee survey DIFES2.

Keywords: continuing vocational training, CVT policy, CVT in companies, capabilities approach, occupational paths


Can managerial practices reduce gender inequalities in the workplace? The case of promotion and training

Ekaterina Melnik-Olive

Hélène Couprie

The paper addresses the role of HR practices in reducing gender inequalities in workplace. The gender inequalities are assessed through the access to promotion and two types of continuing vocational training in enterprise (“on-the job” and “general”). The data used are from the survey DIFES 2 combining responses of workers’ and employers’ conducted by the Céreq. Our results show a strong positive impact of a structured HR policy on the chances of promotion for women. Without specifying any causality, the study reveals a stronger link between promotion and corporate training for women than for men.

Keywords: HR management practice, promotion, access to CVT, gender, CVT in companies, gender based division of labour


Leaving the company that financed training: a paradoxical practice?

Benoit Cart

Valérie Henguelle

Marie-Hélène Toutin


The control of externalities in training is at the heart of Becker’s theory: the company, which financed a “specific training”, should do its utmost to retain trained employees. The DIFES-CVTS survey, which allows specify the notion of “quasi-specific” training, shows that a non-negligible part of the employees who have benefited from this type of training, nevertheless leave the company. The econometric results also show that the co-financing of training does not protect the employees from leaving the company, or even encourages their departure. In the end, it is therefore the uses of training that are questioned.

Keywords: continuing vocational training, CVT funding, transferability of competences, occupational mobility, company wage policy, CVT in companies, employability

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