Disability facing training and work: towards an inclusive employability?
This issue of Formation Emploi explores the training-employment-work relationships for people with disabilities. Indeed, these people are particularly affected by unemployment and by lesser access to qualifications.
The fortunes and misfortunes of disabled workers. On several issues of French policies for the integration of disabled workers into the labour market
This article presents four portraits of persons administratively recognized as disabled workers : a personal assistant which has to reduce her work hours ; an accountant whose disability is misunderstood ; a lab technician reconverted as a math teacher ; a medical aid who can’t find a new job. These life courses lead to scrutinize three main features of French policies for the integration of disabled workers : hiring quotas, anti-discrimination schemes and social rights. These individual stories show the limits of theses measures, notably the accommodation of workplaces and enduring financial shortcomings.
How can apprenticeships for disabled people be developed ? The case of the territorial public authorities in Nouvelle-Aquitaine.
Access to professional training of disabled people remains under developed. Apprenticeships remain a means of reconciling a need for a qualification and professional integration. This article analyses the conditions that encourage the development of apprenticeships in territorial public authorities, using Nouvelle-Aquitaine as a field of investigation. It shows that it goes through the work of “entrepreneurs with a cause” who, through awareness campaigns, a contract strategy with territorial authorities and the labelling of training organisations, promote apprenticeships. They appear as essential forces of a “rights policy” but the results remain limited today. Despite legislative or financial incentives, the actions of key players and institutions, the development of apprenticeships progresses slowly and remains focussed on training for jobs with a low-level of qualification.
Let it go, I’ve decided to put it on ! Apply with a “disabled worker” status
In France, disability policies introduced a ‘right to compensation’ for people with specific needs. This article will question the uses of the Recognition of the Quality of Disabled Worker (RQTH), and more precisely the ways of revealing this status during the first job searches of former higher education students. Based on the re-analysis of semi-directive interviews, we observe two groups who disclose differently their RQTH (on the curriculum vitae versus during the job interview). The visibility of their disability seems to predetermine their practices.
Wages and early-onset disabilities : gradual and multifaceted inequalities
Wage inequalities exist between non-disabled people and people with childhood-onset disability. This article investigates the underlying mechanisms using the French Employment Survey 2011 and its ad hoc module. Depending on the types and degrees of impairment, different dynamics are involved : shorter education for people with a cognitive or a mobility impairment, less access to highly paid professional situations for people with a serious visual impairment, lower wage at equivalent position for people with a serious visual or hearing impairment. Some specialized institutions and professional standards contribute to creating these gaps.
Training disabled workers to prevent them from losing their jobs ?
This article examines the use of training in the light of the risk of “occupational deintegration”, meaning, for workers, the risk of compromising their job retention for reasons of health or disability. On the one hand, the aim, to better characterize this risk, is to document the socio-professional profile of the employees concerned, their employment environment and their working conditions. On the other hand, the aim is to question the perception and the place of vocational training in order to know if it is seen as a means of securing so-called “at-risk” career paths. To do this, the analysis is based on data from Céreq’s “DEFIS” employee training surveys (2015 and 2019). It is also based on repeated interviews with employees dismissed for professional inaptitude who had an employment orientation training package and obtained administrative recognition of their disability.
Leaving the sheltered workshop ? French disabled workers in sheltered employment and the question of integration in the mainstream workplace
Public policies are encouraging sheltered workshops to become transition structures to ordinary employment. However, going from sheltered employment to a mainstream job is extremely rare. The article explores this paradox using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The study shows that the majority of disabled people that were interviewed do not wish to work in ordinary employment, which is perceived as too violent. This vision of the mainstream job market is reinforced by the discourse of ESAT employees, who shape the perspectives of people with disabilities and select those who wish to leave for ordinary employment.
The role of non-profits in the vocational integration of disabled people in the United-States
This paper examines the inclusion of disabled people within the US job market. The main benefits keep disabled people into precariousness (amounts vary between 580 and 1200$ per month on average, there is a limited time work allowed). Two kinds of initiatives can be distinguished : on one hand, anti-discrimination policies (American with Disabilities Act) and on the other, customized employment. Both are highly praised by the state and the private sector. Within the US welfare mix, non-profit organizations play a major role regarding the development of these policies. Therefore, this article questions their methods and the limits of their action.
Articulation between inclusive policies and sheltered employment for persons with disabilities : the case of Sweden
Based on the case of Sweden, this paper studies sheltered work institutions and their articulation with the mainstream labor market. It demonstrates that inclusive policies are not necessarily a substitute for sheltered work. It highlights the strong congruence between the Swedish institutional arrangements and the inclusive model and analyses how the promulgation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2006, opened a policy window for Sweden to increase the diffusion of the inclusive model.
Read the full article (fr.) : https://www.cairn.info/revue-formation-emploi-2021-2.htm