Return to training or education: a real opportunity?
In this edition we ask: does a return to training or education offer real opportunities?
Certain specific characteristics of French society and of the situation of the less well-qualified young people who are experiencing greater difficulties than their elders in finding jobs are highlighted. These difficulties are linked to the important role the education system plays in the distribution not only of employment opportunities but also of access to continuing training.
Thus the possibility of a return to training or education raises more pressing questions in France than elsewhere:
what is the value of the so-called "second chance" education and training programmes for those young people who have experienced difficulties in both the education system and the labour market?
At school, leave or give a chance ?
In common language, luck is captured or given. Within educational institutions these two forms exist and are distinguished according to whether « leaves » a chance or « gives » it effectively. By following the first of these options, we will promote an educational project that promotes the « conversion » of the subject (to principles, values, ways of being ...). On the contrary, relying on the second, we will organize care that is aimed at a « metamorphosis » of the individual. In this case, the educational objective is to create the conditions for a personal integration of these same elements. This article aims to draw some arguments in favor of this second way of doing is to draw the consequences of each of these options by taking as an empirical support an ongoing study on disciplinary councils held in French educational institutions of the second degree.
Supporting early school leavers : inequalities and non-use
The policies of early school leaving compensation are based on support measures in order to facilitate access to training or employment. However, a lot of beneficiaries don’t use these measures, that question their ability to access them. A study based on a sample of 2 948 young people identified as early school leavers shows strong territorial inequalities in mentoring, and the cumulative effects of the lack of support supply and of the unfit proposals in the building of these inequalities.
Giving and seizing a “second chance” : The basic forms of the dropouts’ training quasi-market
Joël Zaffran et Juliette Vollet
The dropouts’ situation is an issue that public authorities try to solve with “second chance” systems. They aim at gaining prerequisites for social integration and job entry through educational support and work-based education. On the one hand, this article demonstrates that the “second chance” scope can be compared to a quasi-market : the services offered require the users’ participation and a market-based regulation of these services allows an external assessment of the systems’ performance. On the other hand, the “second chance” quasi-market incentives force the systems to select young people based on criteria that predict their way out from the beginning.
"Second chance" : what young adults are able to understand
Maël Loquais et Isabelle Houot
This research is about how young adults understand second chance. Based on 40 interviews of young adults in second chance schools (E2C), the analysis reveals several forms of training commitment. If results show inequalities within E2C, they are based on the hypothesis that young people in E2C are able to analyze issues which concern them.
Working on the socialization of non-qualified youth in a high school program : the sense of heckling
How the non qualified youth react to the socialization work operated in high school dropout programs ? The programme we are looking at focuses on encouraging the students to work upon themselves. For these dropout students, this cease with the traditional way of teaching, is another proof of their stigma. They notably establish a certain amount of heckling far from being anomic. Putting this programme into perspective with the evolution of french social policies will reveal the meaning of these behaviors.
Pedagogy as professionalization leverage in the schools of the « Second Chance program » from the Ardennes establishment: between innovation and resistance
Emmanuelle Leclercq et Laurent Béjot
This article analyses the unfinished profesionalization process in Champagne-Ardenne second chance schools (E2C). The analysis focuses on the reflexions and the actions to guide and standardize the trainer’s practices. This means evolution in terms of work organization, training of trainers’ and pedagogical testing. We argue that the evolution of the organization of the pedagogical project leads to new practices for both the school and the trainers.
Training and employment offices in the deprived neighbourhoods : new chance, new challenge … for the institutions
Pascale Moulévrier et Gérald Houdeville
It is a well-known fact that the nominated agents in charge of the caring of the “vulnerables” ones do criticize the way these persons are being taken care of. This is precisely one of the aim of the establishment “Accueil conseil formation” namely breaking with the usual habits (line, waiting, counters, etc.). The purpose of this article is to highlight the originality of this device regarding the obvious gap between an ideal support and the reality. In the end, the improvement of these device’s activities occurs by rather slights changes than wide innovation.
Young homeless people and social accompaniment in France : how to deal with youth professional integration norms ?
French policies for young people professional integration aim to develop specific skills in order to become more employable. This movement excludes young homeless people because they don’t endorse professional integration norms. Through the analysis of the social accompaniment in emergency aid, we can show how a concrete integration policy is implemented despite the distance young homeless people nurture toward integration norms.
The “second chance” : comparing graduating “school re-including” plans, in France and in Argentina
This paper aims at analyzing the ways Argentinian school and French school deal with the “second chance”. Through the study and the comparison of three “school re-including” plans for pupils who have previously dropped out of school, we show that, despite their structural and contextual differences, the two systems integrate contemporary ideas about inclusion, but marginalize them at their borders at the same time. In fact, these plans cannot be enough to overturn traditional mechanisms as the “indifference to differences”, exclusion and school and social selection.