Subcontracting in value chains: the weak link in firm-based training
Subcontracting strategies in labour-intensive industries have escalated over the past forty years. They are reflected in the fragmentation and geographic dispersion of the activities that make up the so-called value chains. It is already known that these strategies tend to influence employees’ employment and working conditions. In addition, our results point to the existence of cascading effects in training opportunities, participation and valuable outcomes. The lower down the production chain a company is located, the more its position correlates with low levels of training opportunities, participation and outcomes.