Couverture FE 157
Formation Emploi, n° 157, June 2022, 164 p.

The third-party employer, an emerging figure in the training-employment link

Published on
8 June 2022

This issue deals with some aspects of intermediation in the training-employment link. The employment market is indeed characterized by persistent massive unemployment and growing precarity. Thus, market intermediation is a social issue. It appears in different ways, as this issue shows: it can have a territorial or local scope, be approached in the framework of apprenticeship training in general and special education in particular, or the analysis of freelance networks.

The social and solidarity economy as a territorial ecosystem of intermediation : the case of the South-Aquitaine TCEC

Danièle Demoustier, Xabier Itçaina

The French Territorial Clusters of Economic Cooperation (TCEC) are emerging forms of cooperation between social and solidarity-based economy (SSE) organisations, public authorities and private for profit companies, all based on a same geographical area. The South Aquitaine TCEC aims at integrating the issue of labour market intermediation within a broader project aiming at giving a SSE footprint to local development. This article reviews the sociohistorical, political and economic process of formation of this system of stakeholders before examining its effects on the local labour market and its ecosystemic dimension.


Employment intermediation, between conquered local and granted local employment. A look back on the Longwy basin

Jean-Luc Deshayes

From working-class conquests to closures of steel factories, from reconversion policies and nomadic business set-ups to development of cross-border work to Luxembourg, the Longwy basin is a special place to analyze changes in employment intermediation. Grounded researches conducted for over forty years highlight the decisive role of employers, that has however moved from the company to the labour market. More or less homogeneous, complementary or coordinated, composed of companies, employment intermediaries and training organisations, “a local employer” allocates resources rights based on increasingly individualized local judgements. His/her configuration contribute to the transition from a “conquered” local employment linked to a wage solidarity to a “granted” local employment where the definition and recognition of qualifications, local careers and local trade-union actions are at stake.


When intermediation is formative: finding one’s place as an apprentice in special education

Marie Chartier, Sophie Avarguez

This paper studies the apprenticeship training system of two special education professions (specialised educator and monitor) as an intermediation system. This analysis studies both intermediation through apprenticeship and intermediation within apprenticeship : the productive (professional integration) and formative (acquisition of professional skills) logics come into tension. The survey by semi-directive interview and by observation of a diversity of scenes in the training system allowed us to grasp how the entry into the system is constructed and to analyse a formative intermediation in the making. In the temporality of the apprentices’ experience, two configurations are identified, in which “finding one’s place” is or is not possible.


When freelance administration companies train people to be self-employed. The third-party employer as an individualisation of the employment relationship

Alexis Louvion

Through the analysis of the intermediation mechanism of umbrella companies, the article examines the way in which a third party employer, the freelance administration companies, can take on a training role through an incentive and advisory work that disseminates a certain perception of economic and labour relations. By mixing interviews and participant observations, the article proposes an ethnography of these spaces where professional competences are replaced by behavioural competences participating in a deconfliction of labour relations.


Read the full article (fr.) :

The «Documentation française», Formation Emploi, n° 156, 2021/4, 162 p.
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Only abstracts are in English, texts are in French.

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The third-party employer, an emerging figure in the training-employment link, Formation Emploi, n° 157, 2022, 164 p.