Formation Emploi (in English), n° 150, September 2020, 233 p.

Training for "small" jobs: international perspectives

Published on
30 September 2020

This issue of Formation Emploi explores the professional socialisation of young people who attended technical and vocational schools,  in different countries.

Apprenticeship "on the horizon" : how pupils with working class backgrounds do internalize an upset sense of their school orientation

Christophe Delay

The aim of this article is to study the educational choices of youngsters who wish to enter apprenticeships at the end of compulsory schooling. Using an ethnographical approach, it shows how a sense of one’s place is internalized by the pupils over the time, first : during everyday life interactions with teachers in classrooms and second : at work placement during a sketchy and incomplete process of professional socialisation. Confronting youngsters’ ideal choices with their final real choices allows us to grasp an important group of upset aspiring pupils whose varying frustration is paradoxically generated by the Swiss education system which is divided in strongly differenciated school tracks.


SEGPA : early professional socialisation in secondary school

Charlotte Moquet

The section of adapted general and vocational education (SEGPA), in France, takes place before schooling and vocational training in high schools or apprentice training centres. It includes vocational training, workshops and internships, for 14 to 16 years old students. Although it is in secondary school and despite its representations, SEGPA is indeed vocational in the sense that it already subjects secondary school students to professional socialisation. It is the place to produce future students with « small » vocational qualification (CAP is level 1 in France) and with working dispositions referring to subordinate, implementation and polyvalent jobs.


Girls in vocational upper secondary school : socialisation in school and professional socialisation

Séverine Depoilly

Based on an ethnographic survey in vocational upper secondary school in different sectors of activity, this article analyses the socialisation of young girl. The socialisation in school reproduce a gender based division on labour. But the young girls are not passive, they can resist. In fact, some behavior may represent an active appropriation of school and professionnal socialisation.


Vocational education and training in French-speaking Switzerland : the impact of teacher representations on gender inequalities

Matilde Wenger et Farinaz Fassa

A study conducted among teachers of initial vocational education and training (IVET) in French-speaking Switzerland highlighted the controversial role of these socialization agents in addressing gender equality. The responses of nearly 300 teachers to questions about modern and traditional sexism scales highlighted statistically significant differences in gender issues. Some groups of teachers still accept – and probably partly transmit – gender representations, transferring a differential socialization of the sexes to the professional world.


The Balearic Islands : When relational support promotes the pursuit of studies in basic vocational training

Caterina Thomàs-Vanrell, Antoni Cerdà-Navarro et Francesca Salvà-Mut

The article analyses the intention to abandon low-level vocational training studies in the Balearic Islands. The study concerns students who manifested their intention to drop out a few months after the start of the school year and those who did not consider abandonment. We compare socio-demographic characteristics and educational paths in relation to the concept of “school engagement”. The results show a relationship amongst life contexts, educational paths and the expectations and motivations of young people to pursue their studies.


When academic process shapes professional socialisation : hairdressing and automotive trades vocational education in high school

Sophie Denave, Fanny Renard et Camille Noûs

This article studies the specificity of professional socialisation in CAP (level 1 vocational qualification) for hairdressing and automotive trades vocational education in high school. It shows that strictly academic process shapes both the modes of socialisation (academic transmission of knowledge and know-how, anticipatory socialisation and work placements overseen by high schools) and the appropriation of these training courses by high school students. Because of a different selection in these two specialisations, the girls studying hairdressing are far less restive than the boys studying automotive trades.


On-the-job trainers : impact of their stance on the various forms of professional socialisation of apprentices

Barbara Duc, Nadia Lamamra et Roberta Besozzi

Dual apprenticeship, which alternates vocational school courses and in-company training, is the most popular post-compulsory training path in Switzerland. This contribution will discuss its known connection with the labour market on the basis of an analysis of the professional socialisations which occur in this context. Attention is paid to central socialisation agents, i.e. on-the-job trainers. Qualitative analyses (thematic content, typology) will enable to identify different dimensions of apprentice socialisation. Then, they will be articulated to distinct types of trainers, built on the basis of their perception of apprentices and their relationship to work. This will highlight how the way in which the training function is assumed influences one or other of the dimensions of professional socialisation.


Read the full article (fr.) :


The «Documentation française», Formation Emploi, n° 150, 2020/2, 233 p.
Price 16,00 €
Only abstracts are in English, texts are in French.

Subscribe to Formation Emploi

Mention the publication

Training for "small" jobs: international perspectives, Formation Emploi (in English), n° 150, 2020, 233 p.